Three Kingdoms
Zhuge Liang, 诸葛亮 (A.D.181 - 234) Shu蜀 Force prime minister English Particular
 


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诸葛亮(181年—234年),字孔明,号卧龙先生,琅琊郡阳都人(今山东省沂南县)。三国时期蜀国大臣,著名的政治家、军事家、外交家。
Zhuge Liang (A.D.181 - 234), alias: "Kong Ming", number WoLong(卧龙) gentleman, Lang Ya Jun琅琊郡 Yang Du阳都 person (now Shandong Province Yi Nan Xian沂南县). Three countries times Shu Force ministers, renowned statesman, strategist, diplomat.

由于其本身的智慧和《三国演义》一书的渲染与宣扬,诸葛亮在民间成为智慧的化身,现有“事后诸葛亮”一说,意思是事后聪明。诸葛亮还发明了孔明灯和手推车(木牛流马)。
Zhuge Liang in the book "the Romance of the Three Kingdoms", Zhuge Liang becomes the wisdom the incarnation. Some proverbs saying "Zhuge Liang after the fact" , the meaning is afterwards intelligent. Zhuge Liang has also invented the kongming lantern and the handcart (ancient transport vehicle).

Biography and merit 生平与功绩

公元181年诸葛亮出生于琅琊郡阳都,家世二千石。9岁母亲章氏去世。12岁父亲诸葛圭去世。
A.D.181 Zhuge Liang is born to the Langya Jun琅琊郡 Yang Du阳都, The family background is prominent. 9 year old mother Zhang章氏 died. 12 year old father Zhuge guī诸葛圭 died.

由叔父诸葛玄抚养长大。197年叔父去世,诸葛亮和和弟弟诸葛均移居南阳郡隆中(今湖北襄樊西)。
虽躬耕陇亩,仍志向远大,自比管仲、乐毅。后与徐庶,崔州平,孟公威,石广元等交好俱游学,曾求学于司马徽,庞德公等当时名士,并娶名士黄承彦之女为妻。
Unreliably fosters by father's younger brother Zhuge Xuan诸葛玄. A.D.197 father's younger brother died, Zhuge Liang and migrates with younger brother Zhuge Jun诸葛均 the Nan Yang Jun南阳郡 Long Zhong隆中 (west now "Hubei"湖北 "Xiangfan"襄樊).Although sows seeds the farmland in here, the ambition was still broad, thought oneself had the ability to manage the world. Afterwards married famous litterateur Huang Cheng Yan黄承彦 the daughter is the wife.

公元207年刘备三顾茅庐,诸葛亮对刘备陈说三分天下之计,即著名的“隆中对”,随即出山辅助刘备。后来罗贯中将这一事实加以艺术描写,遂成为封建社会君臣相得的典范。
A.D. 207 Liu Bei repeatedly asies, Zhuge Liang explains ideas of the three minute worlds to Liu Bei, namely famous "Long Zhong Dui"隆中对, becomes an official immediately assists Liu Bei. Afterwards Luo Guanzhong performed this fact the artistic description, has interpolated "the Romance of the Three Kingdoms" the novel.

诸葛亮进入刘备阵营后,被派往东吴,负责联合东吴抵抗曹操,并最终成功促进孙权合刘备联盟的建立。最后在赤壁之战中,孙权和刘备联军大破曹操军,从此奠定了三国鼎立格局。
After Zhuge Liang enters the Liu Bei camp, is sent toward east Wu, is responsible for east the union Wu to resist Cao Cao, and finally succeeds promotes Sun Quan the Liu Bei alliance establishment. Finally in Battle at the Red Wall赤壁之战, Sun Quan and Liu Bei allied armies greatly broken Cao Cao armed force, from this time on established three countries to stand like a tripod the pattern.

赤壁之战后,协助刘备平定荆南。后刘备入川,诸葛亮坐镇荆州。但庞统的身亡使得刘备调诸葛亮入川,改命关羽负责荆州防务。 诸葛亮在川期间,主要依靠从荆州带来的旧属,同时注意笼络原来刘璋部下和益州豪强大族。对出身贫寒而有才干的士人,也大力拔擢,被称赞为能尽时人之器用。他法令严明,赏罚必信。
After Battle at the Red Wall, assists Liu Bei to still Jing Nan. Afterwards Liu Bei entered the Sichuan, Zhuge Liang assumes personal command Jing Zhou荆州. But the Pang Tong accidental death causes Liu Bei to dispatch Zhuge Liang to enter Sichuan, lets Guan Yu be responsible for the Jing Zhou defense. Zhuge Liang in Sichuan Suchuan period, the main dependence the subordinate which brings from Jing Zhou, simultaneously pays attention bosses around the original Liu jade tablet subordinate and the profit state powerful bullies. Gentleman person poor has the talent which regarding the family background, also vigorously promotes, lets each people all display own ability. His law is strict, the award and punishment must believe.

公元221年刘备称帝,建立蜀汉,诸葛亮受任丞相、录尚书事。
A.D. 221 Liu Bei proclaims oneself emperor, the found Shu Force, Zhuge Liang holds the post of prime minister.

223年(章武三年),刘备病笃,临终托孤于诸葛亮。刘禅继位,他以丞相辅政,又领益州牧,封武乡侯。对于诸葛亮何时当政有争议。有人认为刘备一直十分看重诸葛亮,一直委以重任。另外有些人认为直到刘备去世,诸葛亮才实权推行自己的主张。
A.D. 223 Liu Bei died of illness, at the point of death front holds orphaned to Zhuge Liang. Liu Shanji the position, he relies on prime minister the auxiliary politics, also leads Yi Zhou Mu益州牧, seals Wu Xiang Hou武乡侯. Is in power when regarding Zhuge Liang has the dispute. Some people thought Liu Bei continuously extremely regards as important Zhuge Liang, continuously entrusts with an important task. Moreover some people thought died until Liu Bei, Zhuge Liang can actual carry out own position.

诸葛亮主政后,先重建孙刘联盟,建兴三年(225年)蜀汉南部的南中地区少数民族在孟获率领发动叛乱。诸葛亮即亲率大军,深入不毛,采取参军马谡建议,以攻心为主,打击为首分子,尽量争取当地上层大姓和民众支持,有的被起用为地方长官。一年多后,这些地区的统治得以稳固,为后来的北伐提供了物力和兵力。
After the Zhuge Liang director, first contacts the grandson power, reestablishes Sun the Liu alliance, A.D. 225 Shu Force the south national minority leadership starts the rebellion in Meng Huo under. Zhuge Liang leads personally the army, adopts Ma Su the suggestion, the attack main leader, strives for the local upper formation common surname and the populace as far as possible supports, is appointed they for the governor. After more than a year, these local rules change stably, has provided the physical resource and the military strength for the afterwards Northern Expedition.

建兴六年(228年)春,诸葛亮率领大军出汉中,开始第一次北伐。参军马谡极受器重,北伐中马谡为先锋,违反节度,为魏将所败,亮流涕处死,并以用人失察自请贬官。
A.D. 228 Spring, Zhuge Liang led the army to embark from Hanzhong, started the first Northern Expedition. The senate army horse stands up receives entrusts with heavy responsibility, but in the Northern Expedition Ma Su violated the enormous strategy to be wrong, military officer is defeated by Wei Guo, Zhuge Liang flowed the tear to execute the horse to stand up, and because this matter requested punished oneself.

建兴十二年(234年)54岁的诸葛亮于第五次北伐魏国中病故于五丈原,归葬定军山。
A.D. 234 ,54 year-old Zhuge Liang on the way dies from illness in fifth Northern Expedition Wei Guo's to "Wu Zhang Yan"五丈原, finally buried in the "Ding Jun Shan"定军山.

后人评价

陈寿 在《三国志·诸葛亮传》的后面称他“科教严明,赏罚必信,无恶不 惩,无善不显,至于吏不容奸,人怀自厉,道不拾遗,强不侵弱,风 化肃然也”

尚驰《诸葛武侯庙碑铭序》所说“至令官书庙食,成不刊之典,一山之内,每有风行草动,状带威神,若岁大旱,邦人祷之,能为云为雨,是谓存与没人皆福利,生死古今一也。死而不朽,反贵于生。”[《唐文粹》]

吕温《诸葛武侯庙记》说,诸葛亮“大勋未集,天夺其魄。至诚无忘,炳在日月,烈气不散。长为雷雨。”[《唐文粹》]


唐朝著名诗人杜甫曾作名为《蜀相》的七言律诗表达了其景仰之情,诗曰:

丞相祠堂何处寻,锦官城外柏森森,

映阶碧草自春色,隔叶黄鹂空好音;

三顾频烦天下计,两朝开济老臣心,

出师未捷身先死,长使英雄泪满襟。


鲁迅先生在《中国小说史略》中批三国演义中的诸葛亮:状多智而近妖。


著作

西晋陈寿撰《诸葛亮集》二十四篇,十万四千多字。
明王士骐撰《武侯全书》
清张澍撰《诸葛忠武侯文集》
《隆中对》
《悼周瑜》(亮本传及瑜本传未见,唯演义有载,恐非亮作,当为罗贯中之艺术添加)
《前出师表》
《后出师表》(《后出师表》疑为后人伪作,陶元珍所著魏晋史丛考的第一篇《世传诸葛亮后出师表辨证》(全文)加以考证。)
《诫子书》
《诫外甥书》
《将苑》(又名心书,多数学者认为非诸葛亮所作,多为后人托诸葛之名而作)
《马前课》(绝非诸葛亮著作)
《便宜十六策》

诸葛后裔

根据古代史料,有关诸葛亮后裔三代之后裔孙下落均无记载。1992年,浙江兰溪诸葛村发现《高隆诸葛氏族宗谱》,据此记载,自宋代以来诸葛亮后裔一直生活在浙江兰溪一带。

现在诸葛亮的后裔主要聚居在建德、兰溪、龙游三市县相邻的50公里范围内的11个村镇中,那里有诸葛亮的后裔八千余人,多是诸葛亮的第49代和第50代孙。

诸葛亮后裔聚居浙江是从其第14代孙诸葛利任五代时寿昌县县令开始的。五代时的寿昌即今浙江建德。诸葛利生子诸葛青,诸葛青的长子诸葛承阴的后代于南宋时迁到泉麓村。泉麓村现属兰溪市,现该村有109户569人,其中450人是诸葛氏后裔。诸葛青之次子诸葛承枯的后代从寿昌迁到石鼓坂脚,石鼓坂脚即今浙江省建德县李家镇石鼓村,现那里有诸葛后裔292人。诸葛青之四子诸葛承突的后代从寿昌迁到浙江省龙游县华龙村定居,目前这里有诸葛后裔49户230人。诸葛青的三子诸葛承载的后代于南宋时迁居到浙江高隆定居,高隆之名,取诸葛亮高卧隆中之意。高隆即今兰溪市诸葛镇。诸葛后代散居在高隆周围的7个村落生息繁衍,到了明朝人们便开始称高隆为诸葛镇了,这个称呼一直叫到现在。现在的诸葛镇有诸葛后裔2500人,是诸葛后裔最集中的地方,现已成为诸葛后裔的活动中心。

诸葛镇保存有始建于明代的诸葛大公堂和丞相祠堂。在大公堂内的宝楼上珍藏着 《诸葛氏宗谱》,这本宗谱共修过15次,第一次在南宋初年,最后一次在1947年,当时的国民党元老陈果夫为这部宗谱的最后修订写了序。