Three Kingdoms
Liu Bei ,刘备 (A.D.161 - 223) Shu蜀 Emperor English Particular
 


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刘备(公元161年—223年),字玄德,东汉时涿郡(今河北涿州)人。中国三国时期著名的军事家、政治家。蜀汉王朝的建立者。

Liu Bei (A.D. 161 - 223 ), alias : "Xuan De" , Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty time Zhu county (now Hebei Zhu state) person. Chinese Three Kingdoms time renowned strategist, statesman. Three Kingdoms of Shu Han dynasty establishment.

刘备出生于没落的汉朝皇室世家,是西汉景帝之子中山靖王刘胜的后代。论辈分是汉献帝的族叔。
在东汉末年的军阀混战中,刘备集团的力量相对较弱,又无稳定的根据地,一直处于颠沛流离的境地。曾经一度寄居大军阀曹操、袁绍、刘表之下。但刘备为人的品质和品格方面最符合中国传统的政治思想理念,所以所到之处均深受礼遇和尊敬。
Liu Bei is born in the declining Han Dynasty imperial family aristocratic family, is the Western Han Dynasty scenery emperor's son Zhongshan peace Wang Liu Sheng descendant. Is the Chinese offers the emperor by the rank the great uncle. In in the Eastern Han Dynasty last years warlord tangled warfare, the Liu Bei group's strength is relatively small and weak, also does not have the stable base, continuously spends the life which drifts about destitute. Has the period of time also resides temporarily in big warlord Cao Cao, Yuan Shao, in the Liu Biao domain, obtains the protection. But Liu Bei cultivates the behavior the quality and the moral character aspect most conformed to at that time the Chinese tradition political thinking idea, therefore arrived place all deeply the courteous reception and the respect.

188年,刘备与关羽、张飞在涿县组织起了一支地方武装,加入东汉王朝扑灭黄巾起义军的战争,史料记载他:“数有战功”、“有武勇”。战争结束后,刘备建立了其军事集团的正规武装力量,任职东汉王朝的平原相(县令)。
A.D. 188 years, Liu Bei and Guan Yu, Zhang Fei organized one local armed forces in Chohsien, joined the Eastern Han Dynasty dynasty suppresses the yellow turban insurrectionary army's war, the historical data records him: " The number has the meritorious military service ", " has military is brave ". The after war ends, Liu Bei established its military bloc's regular armed forces, was in office the Eastern Han Dynasty dynasty plain (county magistrate).

196年升任徐州牧,官拜镇东将军、封宜城亭侯。徐州被吕布攻占后改任豫州牧。
A.D. 196 years are promoted Xu officials , the official does obeisance east the town general, seals the Icheng pavilion marquis. After Hsuchou is attacked and occupied by the Lu cloth has to to hold the post of Henan officials .

207年,诸葛亮加入刘备集团任军师。刘备按照诸葛亮的战略方针:占荆州、联孙吴、退曹兵、入四川。
A.D. 207 years, Zhuge Liang joins the Liu Bei group lets the military strategist. Liu Bei according to Zhuge Liang's strategic concept: Occupies Jing Zhou, association Sun Wu, draws back Cao Bing, enters Sichuan.

221年于成都称帝建立蜀汉王朝,疆土包括今四川及云南、贵州北部、陕西旧汉中府一带。成为三国时期的其中一国。先后娶妻甘氏、麋氏、孙氏和吴氏。子刘禅继位。
A.D. 221 years change the title to Cheng Du are emperors, establish the Three Kingdoms of Shu Han dynasty, the territory include north now Sichuan and Yunnan, Guizhou, area the Shaanxi old Hanzhong government office. Becomes the Three Kingdoms time one country. Successively gets married of a man Gan Shi, Mi, grandson and Wu Shi. Sub- Liu Shan Ji position.

223年,在为关羽报仇而发动的对吴战争中失败,退兵回到蜀国。同年4月在白帝城(今重庆奉节)病逝,享年63岁, 谥号为“昭烈”。刘备在中国有两个坟墓。一个是成都市武侯祠内的“惠陵”;另一处在四川彭山的莲花坝。

A.D. 223 years, in for close the feather revenge start to be defeated to the Wu war in, repulse the enemy return the Suchuan country. Same year in April (now Chongqing Fengjie) dies of illness in the white emperor city, die at the age of 63 year. confer posthumous honours on " illustrious dies for a just cause ". Liu Bei has two graves in China. One is Chengdu military marquis temple inside " the benefit mausoleum "; As soon as occupies in addition the Sichuan Pengshan's lotus flower dam.

评价
刘备作为一个优秀的政治家、军事家,他的优点是多方面的,如爱民爱材、宽厚仁义、知人善任,待人公正真诚。《三国志》评论刘备“先主之弘毅宽厚,知人待士,尽有高祖之风,英雄之器焉。及其举国托孤于诸葛亮,而心神不二,诚君臣之圣公,古今之盛轨也。机权干略,不逮魏武,是以基宇亦侠,然折而不挠,终不为下看,抑揆彼之量,必不容己,非唯竟利,且以避害云尔。”他能将一大批优秀的政治、军事人材收为己用。最典型的范例就是诸葛亮,据《三国志》记载,刘备临终前遗言诸葛亮:“君才十倍曹丕,必能安邦定国,终定大事。若嗣子可辅,则辅之;如其不才,君可自为成都之主”,诸葛亮却在大权在握时,念念不忘完成刘备的遗志,最后在北伐的战争中“鞠躬尽瘁,死而后己”。刘备的政治品格特点,是中国传统的政治思想理念的体现。孔、孟的政治主张强调“德治”,强调“仁政”,告诫统治者要“以德服人”,要用自己的人品、高尚的道德来影响臣民,征服百姓。刘备在复杂的政治斗争实践中领略到遵循儒家政治思想理念对于角逐天下的重要性,十分注意自身品德人格的修养,树立贤德之君的风范,临终时仍不忘留下遗诏告诫刘禅:“勿以恶小而为之,勿以善小而不为。惟贤惟德,能服于人。”正是这个“惟贤惟德,能服于人”的基本政治理念,铸成了刘备一生受人敬重的政治品格,成就了刘备的一生霸业。

世人也称他“刘先主”。后来杜甫作诗说:

蜀主窥吴向三峡,崩年亦在永安宫。
翠华想像空山外,玉殿虚无野寺中。
古庙杉松巢水鹤,岁时伏腊走村翁。
武侯祠屋长邻近,一体君臣祭祀同。