-China up to the Three Kingdoms period, China had had five dynasties: Mythology (BC 5000-2200), Xia Dynasty (BC 2200-1700), Shang Dynasty (BC 1700-1050), Zhou Dynasty (BC 1050-221), Qin Dynasty (BC 221-206), and Han Dynasty (BC 206-AD 220). The Spring and Autumn Period (BC 770-476) and the Warring States Period (BC 475-221) fell within the last 500 years of Zhou Dynasty. britannica, history

-Art of War, the, a brief military treatise of 13 chapters written by Sun Zi. Sun Zi's descendant Sun Bin also wrote another military treatise named The Art of War of Sun Bin, which further developed Sun Zi's systems. Moreover, another great general Wu Qi also penned a treatise "Wu Qi's Art of War", but only 6 of 43 chapters have been preserved. The Art of War (Sun Zi)

-Bai Qi a general of Qin. In BC 278, the armies of Qin, led by Bai Qi, conquered Chu and entered her capital Ying, destroying the palace to the ground.

-Bian He of Chu (circa 800) found a jadestone that became the Imperial Hereditary Seal. read the story of the Imperial Hereditary Seal

-Bian Que (source) the earliest of the legendary doctors of Chinese medicine after the time of the Yellow Emperor and his advisors. Credited with incredible healing knowledge, stories of his life and treatments are used in teaching and known to all Chinese medicine practitioners today.

-Bing Ji (source) A prime minister of Western Han. One day, while riding in his cart with attendants, they came across brawling people by the road. He continued without concern. They then came across a man with an water buffalo panting. He immediately stopped to ask how long they had been traveling. His attendants were puzzled as to why he was more concerned about an ox than injured people. He replied that fighting was a matter for local officials, but an ox panting in early spring (if not traveling for long) suggested unusual heat, which could have disastrous results for all.

-Bo Yi and Shu Qi (source) were two sons of the lord of Guzhu . Their father wished to establish [the younger son] Shu Qi as his heir. Upon their father's death, Shu Qi abdicated in favor of Bo Yi. But Bo Yi said: "It is our father's will [that you should rule]." Then he ran away. Shu Qi was not willing to reign either, and ran away. The people of the state named a middle son as heir.

-Cai Yan, aka Cai Wenji, a poetess, daughter of the imperial historian Cai Yong. read the story of Cai Yan via her painting

-Cao Shen a general of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been close friends in their native Pei, where Liu Bang later held a minor office. Served as Han's prime minister. Liu Bang's ministers

-Cen Peng a general of Liu Xiu. Cen Peng was loyal and contributed much to Liu Xiu's success. He, together with Yao Qi, Deng Yu, Chen Jun, and Du Mao, was executed by Liu Xiu by mistake when Liu Xiu was drunk. Liu Xiu later died of this grief.

-Cheng Dechen a general of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period. Cheng Dechen fought against Duke Wen of Jin and lost (BC 632).

-Chen Ping (BC ?-178) a master strategist of Liu Bang. He first served Xiang Yu but then became a follower in Liu Bang's camp. Served as Liu Bang's prime minister and Empress Lu's left minister. After the death of Empress Lu, Chen Ping played an important role in returning royal authority to the Liu clan. see Liu Bang's ministers

-China up to the Three Kingdoms period, China had had five dynasties: Mythology (BC 5000-2200), Xia Dynasty (BC 2200-1700), Shang Dynasty (BC 1700-1050), Zhou Dynasty (BC 1050-221), Qin Dynasty (BC 221-206), and Han Dynasty (BC 206-AD 220). britannica, history

-Chu and Han, the strife between, at the end of Qin rule, rebellions were everywhere. Gradually, the contending for the empire was focused into two main forces---Chu and Han. Xiang Yu was the leader of Chu, and Liu Bang that of Han. Liu Bang eventually prevailed and found the Han Dynasty. Sanderson Beck, history

-Confucius (BC 551-479) a major philosopher who sought to guide the people by holding up to them the wisdom and virtue of the ancients. His teaching was purely ethical and practical, confined to the daily life of humans as members of the state and of their family. Among the virtues demanded by the Confucian ethics, propriety, reverence for tradition, and filial piety are the most important. The last especially is the foundation upon which have stood the social life and security of the Chinese structure. biography, history

-Deng Yu commander-in-chief of Liu Xiu (Eastern Han). Deng Yu was loyal and contributed much to Liu Xiu's success. He, together with Cen Peng, Yao Qi, Chen Jun, and Du Mao, was executed by Liu Xiu by mistake when Liu Xiu was drunk. Liu Xiu later died of this grief.

-Duke Huan of Qi, (reigned BC 685643) leader of a league of small states in northeast China during the Spring and Autumn period. His prime minister was the famed Guan Zhong. see Qi state

-Duke of Zhou, the, brother of King Wu, who was the founder of Zhou Dynasty. After King Wu's death, the Duke of Zhou served his young son as regent. The Duke of Zhou completely ended the Shang domination, and he helped establish the Zhou administrative framework, which served as a model for future Chinese dynasties. biography, history

-Duke Wen of Jin, (reigned 636628 BC) ruler of the western state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn period. He and his successors made Jin a dominant state for nearly 200 years. biography, history, see Jin state

-E Lai, whose physical strength was extraordinary, was a general of King Zhou, the last king of Shang Dynasty.

Emei Mountain (source) one of the most renowned Buddhist and Daoist (Taoist) sanctuaries in China. The mountain is located in the basin of Sichuan Province. The beautiful majesty of this mountain has caused it to be named Emei, "the most beautiful mountain under heaven." Visitors of this mountain are treated to several peaks, bubbling springs, cascading waterfalls, tall ancient trees and abundant flowers along the many mountain paths leading to the many scenic spots and temples that dot the mountain side from the base to the summit.

-Emperor Wu, aka Liu Che, (reigned BC 141-87) whose reign was longest among the Han emperors. Emperor Wu was perhaps the most influential Han emperor who concerned not only about expanding territory but also about developing trade with other countries (the Silk Road, for example). Emperor paid especially attention to longevity, and his court often had elaborate rituals.

-Empress Lu (BC ?-180) wife of Liu Bang, the Han Founder. After Liu Bang's death, she held imperial authority. She appointed members of her own family to highly important positions of state and clearly hoped to substitute her own family for the reigning Liu family. But these plans were frustrated on her death (BC 180). biography, imperial succession

-Eunuch (source) castrated human male. From remote antiquity, eunuchs were employed in China in two main functions: As guards and servants in harems or other women's quarters, and as chamberlains to kings.

-Fan Kuai (BC ?-189) a brave general of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been close friends in their native Pei, where he was a butcher and Liu Bang later held a minor office. Enobled as Lord of Zuo. Executed by Empress Lu in BC 189. see Hongmen Banquet, Liu Bang's ministers

-Fan Li adviser of Gou Jian, the king of Yue. Fan Li helped Gou Jian plot the "Beauty Ruse" in order to destroy Fu Zha, the king of Wu. After Yue triumphed over Wu, Fan Li resigned from politics.

-First Emperor, the, aka Prince Zheng or Shi Huangdi, (BC 259-209) the founder of Qin Dynasty. The First Emperor consolidated the empire at the end of Zhou Dynasty, and he ruled a unified China for the first time in history. However, his dynasty crumbled four years after his death. biography, history

Great River, the, the Yangtze or Yangzi river, which flows from west to east to the Pacific at Shanghai.

-Great Wall, the, a fortification wall stretching 4,500 miles long in northern China. Separate smaller walls had existed before to keep away the nomadic Xiongnu people from invading the empire. But General Meng Tian of the the First Emperor unified these walls and built them into a huge structure, and the wall kept growing over the time. britannica, history

-Gou Jian king of Yue who defeated the powerful Wu by offering King Fu Zha of Wu a beautiful lady named Xi Shi. Xi Shi persuaded Fu Zha to get rid of loyal ministers. By and by Wu was weakened and finally defeated.

-Guan Zhong prime minister of Duke Huan of Qi. He formed salt and iron monopolies, set up a tax system, and created a central army for Qi. Under the leadership of Duke Huang and Guan Zhong, Qi dominated the empire for a period during the Spring and Autumn. see Qi state

-Han Dynasty (BC 206-AD 220) founded by Liu Bang. The Chinese still call themselves "the people of Han" in memory of its greatness. Even though Qin Dynasty had marked the end of Chinese feudalism, it was Han that put into practice the central government authority. britannica, history, see China

-Han Xin (BC ?-197) a general of Liu Bang. Before serving Han, Han Xin had been an officer under Xiang Yu. Disappointed because his plans were rejected, Han Xin left Xiang Yu and joined Liu Bang's camp, where he was made Commander-in-Chief by recommendations of Xiao He and Zhang Liang. Enobled as King of Qi, then King of Chu. Demoted to Marqis of Huaiyang by Liu Bang. Arrested by Liu Bang and executed by Empress Lu (BC 197). Xiao He pursues Han Xin, Liu Bang's ministers

-Hongmen Banquet At that time Liu Bang, Governor of Pei, and Xiang Yu, King of West Chu, were fighting Qin under the Chu banner. Liu Bang was the first commander who entered Qin's capital, Xianyang. The loss of this honor enraged Xiang Yu, and he was set to attack Liu Bang's force. But his uncle Xiang Ba wanted to mediate the situation, and Xiang Ba invited Liu Bang to visit Xiang Yu's camp in Hongmen. During a banquet at Hongmen, Xiang Yu's adviser Fan Zeng ordered Xiang Chang to perform a sword-dance and take the chance to kill Liu Bang. However, as Xiang Chang closed in Liu Bang, Xiang Ba rose to perform another sword-dance and fend off the attack. Just then Liu Bang's general Fan Kuai bursted in, armed and angry-looking. Fan Kuai proclaimed his lord's achievements and denounced the murder plot. In the confusion, Liu Bang slipped away and rushed back to his camp. Historical Records of Sima Qian, Chinese culture of drinking, Kungfu

-Huo Guang (BC ?-68) a general and regent of Han. After Emperor Wu died, Huo Guang became regent to three successive emperors, and the second one had been the Prince of Changyi, who was on the throne for only twenty-seven days. Huo Guang had the Prince of Changyi declared unfit to rule and deposed him. Even though Huo Guang contributed much to the empire's stabilization, after he died, he was distanced by the emperor and most of his family were executed for conspiracy charges. Wudi's Successors

-Huo Qubing (BC 177-140) a brave general of Han Emperor Wu. Huo Qubing was a relative of Wei Qing, and he also led expeditions against the Xiongnu countries. But he died young, and the emperor built him a large tomb in his memory.

-Imperial Hereditary Seal, the, the seal that passed from one emperor to another. read its story

-Jin Midi was a High Minister of Emperor Wu. Jin Midi's descendants had held high offices for several generations.

-King Shun, King Yao, and King Yu (BC 2400-2200) were the three ideal rulers in ancient China. They ascended the throne by their virtues and merits, and not by heritage. history

-King Tang founder of the Shang Dynasty. the father of ice cream!, the fall of Xia Dynasty

-King Wen, aka the Scholar King, founder of the Zhou Dynasty, father of King Wu. King Wen did not actually founded the dynasty, but he laid the foundation for Zhou. At the end of Shang Dynasty, the state Zhou of King Wen had already possessed two-thirds of the empire, but King Wen still faithfully served the last emperor of Shang. biography

-King Wu, aka the Martial King, founded the Zhou Dynasty, with the help of the Duke of Zhou, who was his brother. biography, history

-King Yao, King Shun, and King Yu (BC 2400-2200) were the three ideal rulers in ancient China. They ascended the throne by their virtues and merits, and not by heritage. history

-King Yu, King Yao, and King Shun (BC 2400-2200) were the three ideal rulers in ancient China. They ascended the throne by their virtues and merits, and not by heritage. King Yu was also the founder of the Xia Dynasty. history

-Lady Wuyan of Qi, a lady who did not possess physical attractiveness. Yet her insights were so loving that King Xuan of Qi fell in love with her and made her queen. biography

-Lady Zhen, a famous lady in the North of Yellow River (Hebei), wife to Yuan Xi, son of Yuan Shao. When Yuan Shao was defeated by Cao Cao, both Cao Cao's sons Cao Pi and Cao Zhi claimed her, not to mention Cao Cao himself. Cao Pi eventually won her hand, wedded her, and made her an empress. She later became the Goddess of River Luo, according to folktales. The Goddess of River Luo

-Land Within the Pass, the, the land around the Capital Changan.

-Li Yiji diplomat and adviser of Liu Bang. Li Yiji went on mission to discuss peace between Liu Bang and King Tian Guang of Qi. Li Yiji demanded a ceasefire as condition for talk. Tian Guang complied. While the discussion was going on, Liu Bang attacked. Tian Guang enraged and threw Li Yiji into boiling oil. Liu Bang's ministers

-Li Si (BC 280-208) statesman who was responsible for most of the radical political and cutural innovations made in Qin after BC 221. biography

-Lian Po commander-in-chief of Zhao in the Warring States period, who made Zhao a powerful state. Liu Xiangru, the Prime Minister of Zhao, was his good friend. Lian Po and Liu Xiangru became friends.

-Liu Bang (BC 256-195) the founder of Han Dynasty, also known as Western Han (capital in Changan). From a farmer family. His first office was assistant to a magistrate in Pei. Joined peasant rebellions against Qin Dynasty. Fought under Chu banner. Became a general, then ennobled as King of Han. In BC 206 Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and won the empire. biography, strife between Chu and Han, Western Han

-Liu Bang's ministers Liu Bang's success was due to his able helpers and friends in the rebellion days. After he gained the empire, his leaders became lords and kings and ministers. But Liu Bang and his queen were not good lords, and their ministers one by one revolted against them. Many of them were either demoted or executed. When Liu Bang and Empress Lu died, their children and relatives ruled kingdoms. Zhang Liang, Han Xin, Xiao He, Chen Ping, Peng Yue, Cao Shen, Xiahou Ying, Fan Kuai, Li Yiji, Lu Jia, Ying Bu

-Liu Xiangru prime minister of Zhao in the Warring States period, who did not have the force even to bind a chicken, but boldly behaved in the court of the powerful Qin. When King Zhaoxiang of Qin tried to make away the purest jadestone from Zhao, Liu Xiangru threatened to destroy the stone, and so King Zhaoxiang backed off and let Liu Xiangru to return to Zhao.

-Liu Xiu (BC 5-AD 57) (reigned AD 25-57) restored Han after Wang Mang's usurpation. The dynasty Liu Xiu restored is also known as Eastern Han (capital in Luoyang) or Latter Han. biography, history, see Wang Mang

-Lu Jia a philosopher, diplomat, and counselor to Liu Bang. Author of "New Discourses" that advocaded goodness and justice instead of harshness and punishment. In BC 196, Liu Bang made it a law that people with virtues were to be recommended to the government for office. Liu Bang's minister

-Lu Wang, aka Jiang Ziya, Taigong Wang, a master strategist, founding minister of Zhou Dynasty, counselor to King Wen. Before joining King Wen, Lu Wang had been a fisher, who mediated on the river bank on political events.

-Ma Wu a general of Liu Xiu. Ma Wu was loyal and contributed much to Liu Xiu's success. Committed suicide after Liu Xiu executed several ministers by mistake when Liu Xiu was drunk. Liu Xiu later died of this grief.

-Ma Yuan (BC 14-AD 49) a general who first served Wang Mang, then joined Liu Xiu in restoring Han Dynasty. In his life of career, Ma Yuan contributed much to Liu Xiu's success by putting down rebellions throughout the empire and abroad. biography

-Mencius (BC 372-289) a major philosopher who held an extremely optimistic view as to the original goodness of human nature, and believed that it was possible for humans by their own efforts to reach the state of perfection. Mencius has been revered as the cofounder of Confucianism, second only to Confucius himself. biography

-Meng Tian a commander of the First Emperor, engineer of the Great Wall, inventor of the brush. He was executed, together with the First Emperor's eldest son, by Zhao Gao, who supported the second son for succession. history

-Office

-Peng Yue (BC ?-196) a general of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been close friends in their native Pei, where Liu Bang later held a minor office. Ennobled as King of Liang, but later was arrested, sent into exile, and then executed by Liu Bang (BC 196). see Liu Bang's ministers

-Qin Dynasty (BC 221-206) the first dynasty that marked the end of Chinese feudalism. Its founder styled himself the First Emperor of a unified empire. Qin gave us the name "China", the Great Wall, and the Qin Tomb among others. britannica, history, Qin timeline

-Red Eyebrows, the, in the ending years of Wang Mang's usurpation, rebels ran the country. The Red Eyebrows rebels were one of the most active of the robber bands. They finally captured Changan, and Wang Mang was killed in the fighting. the fall of Wang Mang, see Wang Mang

-Shang Dynasty (BC 1700-1050) founded by King Tang with the help of Yi Yin, his prime minister. britannica, history, (china10k), see China

-Shen Sheng and Chong Er Shen Sheng was the eldest son of Duke Xiao of Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. But Duke Xiao wanted the son of his favorite concubine, Li Ji, to succeed him as the ruler of Jin. So Duke Xiao falsely accused Shen Sheng of trying to murder him. Shen Sheng committed suidcide rather than flee. The second eldest son Chong Er would have suffered the same, but he knew of this and fled.

-Shi Kuang, (source) aka Master Kuang, was perhaps the most famous musician in ancient China, said to have been music master to Duke Ping of Jin in the Spring and Autumn Period. Huainanzi says that when Shi Kuang played "Bai Xue" (White Snow) strange birds descended, accompanied by wind and rain. (source) Bai Xue gives expression to the meanings of "awe-inspiring righteousness and cleanness" and "as superb as the bamboo in snow".

-Sima Qian (BC 145-85) astronomer, calendar expert, and the first great Chinese historian, noted for his authorship of the "Historical Records" or Shi Ji, which is considered to be the most important history of China down to the end of the 2nd century. biography

-Spring and Autumn Period, the, aka the Age of Feudalism, (BC 770-476) during the Zhou Dynasty. The best record of this period has been preserved in the Spring and Autumn Classic, dating from BC 722 to BC 481, a work said to have been edited by Confucius. It is largely a record of civil wars among the feudal states, which the emperor was powerless to prevent. Annexations of weaker states by stronger ones were of frequent occurrence. Of 1,773 states created by the founder of Zhou Dynasty, only one hundred and sixty were left; and of this number only twelve were of importance. The rest merely rallied under the flags of their leaders until they were swallowed up. britannica, history

-States

-Su Qin prime minister of six states during the Warring States period. Su Qin was the leader of the "Perpendicular Unionists", the diplomats who lobbied a group of states from north to south to make war with Qin. Perpendicular and Horizontal Alliances

-Sun Bin military strategist, a descendant of Sun Zi. Sun Bin served as military counselor during the Warring States period in Qi. He wrote a treatise named The Art of War of Sun Bin. biography

-Sun Zi (aka Sun Wu, Sunzi, Suntzu, Sun-tzu, Sun tzu) the author of the famed treatise The Art of War. A general of Wu in the Spring and Autumn period, Sun Zi made her the mightiest state during his lifetime by defeating Chu and conquering Yue. His treatise the Art of War is still avidly read today by many. biography, see Art of War, the

-Tian Heng a warrior of Qi at the end of the Warring States period and Qin Dynasty. In his bid to regain the lost kingdom of Qi, Tian Heng rebelled against Qin and fought both Liu Bang and Xiang Yu. read Tian Heng Island

-Wang Mang (BC 45-AD 23) regent and a nephew of the empress dowager Wang. He assumed the throne from AD 9 to 23. biography, Wang Mang's usurpation (britannica), history

-Warring States Period, the, aka the Age of Seven States, (BC 475-221) during the Zhou Dynasty. As the state of Jin had become too large for its duke to maintain control, the partition of Jin took place, and three new states were born---Wei, Zhao, and Han. The three newly founded states and four of the older states, each representing the amalgamation of a number of smaller ones, made up the Seven States. The four older states were Qin in the west, Chu in the south, Yan in the north, and Qi in the east. Of the seven states, Chu and Qin each possessed a third of the empire, while the remaining third was divided among the other five states. britannica, history

-Wei Qing a grand general during Han Emperor Wu. Wei Qing had made several large-scale campaigns against the Xiongnu countries. Though those campaigns were successful, he also suffered great casualties. Further, he was accused of being extravagant.

-Wei Zi the Duke of Song. The last king of Shang Dynasty was King Zhou, who was cruel and corrupt. King Zhou had three uncles---Bi Gan, Qi Zi, and Wei Zi---who served as ministers. When these three officials repeatedly failed to persuade King Zhou to repent, Wei Zi resigned his post, while Qi Zi pretended to be insane. Bi Gan stayed and continued persuading the king, who later executed Bi Gan. Later the Duke of Zhou overthrew Shang Dynasty and enobled Wei Zi, Qi Zi, and the wife and the son of Bi Gan. Wei Zi became known as the Duke of Song. Qi Zi left for Korea where he became a ruler. biography

-Wen Tombs a burial place of court officials and royal families.

-Wu Qi, aka Wu Zi, a famous general in the Warring States period. He first served Lu, then went to Wei, his native, and led Wei army against Qin. He made enemies in Wei, so he fled to Chu, where King Dao made him prime minister. Wu Qi made Chu a powerful state; expanded her territory; defended her against Wei, Zhao, and Han; and attacked Qin. But right after King Dao died, Wu Qi was put to death by his enemies at court. Wu Qi is the author of a military treatise named "Wu Qi's Art of War".

-Wu Zixu (source) a native of Chu but sought refuge in Wu, and achieved great accomplishments for Wu. However, the younger king of Wu later believed rumors spread by some people, and ordered Wu Zixu to be put to death.

-Xi Shi a famous beauty who helped King Gou Jian of Yue defeat the powerful kingdom of Wu in the Spring and Autumn period. Acting on Fan Li's counsel, Xi Shi made Fu Zha, the king of Wu, fall madly in love with her and dismiss or kill his loyal ministers. After Wu had been thus weakened, Guo Jian attacked and conquered Wu. Fu Zha died in the fight. Legend has it that having completed her task, Xi Shi went away with Fan Li, and they became wealthy merchants and did a lot of charity works. Another story says that after Fu Zha died, Xi Shi discovered he truly loved her, and she committed suicide to be with him.

-Xia Dynasty (BC 2200-1700) the earliest dynasty recorded in Chinese history, founded by King Yu, who was an ideal king in antiquity. history

-Xiahou Ying (BC ?-173) a general of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been close friends in their native Pei, where Liu Bang later held a minor office. Enobled as the Marquis of Ruyin and commonly called the Lord of Tang. see Liu Bang's ministers

-Xiao He (BC ?-193) a close adviser of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been friends in their native Pei, where Liu Bang later held a minor office. Recommended Han Xin to Liu Bang. Became Han's prime minister. Enobled as the Lord of Cuo. Executed by Empress Lu (BC 193). see Liu Bang's ministers

-Xiang Yu (BC 232-202) the leader of Chu and a rival of Liu Bang in contending the empire after the fall of Qin. biography, strife between Chu and Han, Wujang Song

-Yi Yin was was helper and prime minister of King Tang, the founder of Shang Dynasty. After King Tang's death, Yi Yin served his sons and grandson. Soon after Tai Jia, King Tang's grandson, ascended the throne, he committed many faults, and Yi Yin, acting as regent, exiled Tai Jia to Tong Palace---the burial place of King Tang. After three years Yi Yin returned him the throne. Tai Jia eventually became an enlightened emperor. Shang Dynasty lasted for 650 years (BC 1700-1050). It was this act of Yi Yin rather than his services in building up an empire that has made him immortal. Whether he did right in temporarily dethroning the king was open to question, until a final verdict was rendered by Mencius who thought that his ends amply justified his means. Yi Yin the wise counselor, history, The Mandate of Heaven

-Ying Bu (BC ?-195) a general of Liu Bang. He and Liu Bang had been close friends in their native Pei, where Liu Bang later held a minor office. Enobled as King of Huainan. Later Ying Bu was suspected of rebellion, and he wounded Liu Bang with an arrow during a battle. Was killed by his relative King Wu Chen of Changsha (BC 195). see Liu Bang's ministers

-Yue Fei (AD 1103-1142) a great general during the Song Dynasty. During his time, northern China was invaded by the Jin (northeast) armies. Yue Fei, as commander of the northern expedition, was winning victories, when the emperor recalled him because the emperor feared Yue Fei's growing power and that Jin would release his father and brother (both former emperors). Yue Fei was later executed due to false charges. biography

-Yue Yi a great general of Yan. Yue Yi helped Yan overcome Qi, which was a dominant state during the Warring States period.

-Yan Zun one of the most well-known Taoist scholars in early Han.

-Zhang Ji (source) a legendary physician in the Latter Han period. One of his compilations instantly became one of the main bases for historical Chinese healing.

-Zhang Liang, aka Zhang Zifang, the master strategist for Liu Bang. His family had served the state of Han as chief ministers during the Warring States period. It is said that he received the strategy book of Lu Wang from a mysterious old man. When he was young, Zhang Liang plotted to assasinate the First Emperor, but failed. He later rebeled against Qin. Joined Liu Bang (BC 206) to fight against Qin and then Chu. Recommended Han Xin to Liu Bang. Zhang Liang's insights had earned him the name "The Teacher of Emperor". After Liu Bang won the empire, Zhang Liang was enobled as Lord of Liu, but did not take office, instead he resigned from political life and traveled. Many of his collegues later revolted against Liu Bang and were put down one by one. Famous Strategists, Liu Bang's ministers

-Zhang Yi prime minister of Qin during the Warring States period. Zhang Yi was the leader of the "Horizontal Unionists", the diplomats who persuaded a group of states from east to west to make peace with Qin. Perpendicular and Horizontal Alliances

-Zhao Gao a court eunuch serving the First Emperor. Zhao Gao killed the eldest son and supported the second son for the throne after the First Emperor's death (BC 209). In the final days of Qin Dynasty, Zhao Gao killed the Second Emperor and placed the First Emperor's grandson on the throne (BC 206). history

-Zhou Bo prime minister of Han Emperor Wen (BC 179-156). After Empress Lu died, Zhou Bo cooperated with Chen Ping and Liu Zhan to purge the Lu clan. Ennobled as Lord of Jiang.

-Zhou Dynasty (BC 1050-221) founded by King Wen, King Wu, and the Duke of Zhou. The Zhou Dynasty marks the beginning of a new epoch in Chinese history. With it the real authentic history begins. In it are to be found the origins and principles of Chinese civilization. britannica, history, see China

-Zhou Yafu son of Zhou Bo. After the death of Emperor Wen (BC 156), Duke Wu started a rebellion of Seven Kingdoms. Zhou Yafu as a general put down this rebellion.

-Zi Fan uncle to Duke Wen of Jin. In his early days, Duke Wen spent nineteen years in exile, and Zi Fan accompanied him. When Duke Wen set to return to Jin, Zi Fan took leave, believing that Duke Wen would remember only Zi Fan's faults.