Goguryeo : Koguryo

Goguryeo or Koguryo (고구려 ; 高勾麗; pinyin gao1 gou1 li2) (1st century BC-668) was a kingdom in southern Manchuria and northern Korea. It is known as one of the three kingdoms to Koreans. It was named after Gaogouli (高勾驪; gao1 gou1 li2) an ancient Chinese prefecture in Xuantu Commandry (玄菟) in modern Liaoning province.

According to Samguk Sagi the legendary king Jumong founded the kingdom in 37 BC around what is now the border between China and North Korea. It gained power while China was fragmented. The maximum extension was reached during the reigns of King Gwanggaeto the Great[?] and his son King Jangsu[?]. It was overthrown by the alliance of the Chinese Tang Empire and Silla[?] in 668.

Remains of castles, palaces and several artifacts including tomb paintings have been found in North Korea. Some ruins are also still visible in Manchuria, for example at O-nyeo-san[?] or "Five Maiden Peaks" near Jian in north east China, thought to be the site of the first city of Goguryeo.

The Goguryeo language is unknown except for small number of words, which suggests that it was significantly different from Korean or Tungusic languages. Some of these words can be found in the old Korean language (early 10 C.-late 14 C.) but were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long. It is interesting that some words including numerals correspond with Japanese ones.

See also: Ethnic groups in Chinese history

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